Types of agriculture in India: Top 9 Major types of Farming.

Agriculture is one of the most important fields in India as well as everywhere on earth. Without agriculture, we can’t imagine the world. So, it is compulsory to know the importance of various types of agriculture in India. We can say that agriculture is equivalent to farmers, without farmers agriculture is incomplete.

 Farmers are the backbone of the agricultural industry. So support farming & save nature because we don’t have another place to live.

The average growth of agriculture products in India is 86.14 INR Billion from 1991 to 2021, 2019 the highest production in the agriculture industry which is 284.83 INR Billion in March, and in 1991 the lowest growth rate of production is 4.95 Billion in October. The prepared Indian agricultural food is exported to more than 120 countries. As per resources in 2020 India ranks 74th out of 113 countries in Agricultural Industries. The Indian food and grocery placed 6th rank in the world.

Types-of-agriculture-in-India

Farmers can produce a variety of foods, using different types of Farming techniques. But this Farming technique depends upon various aspects such as types of soil, weather conditions, available resources, etc.

For example: black soil is popular as black cotton soil because it is mostly used to cultivate cotton. It is also used for growing groundnut, jowar, linseed, sunflower, citrus fruit, tomatoes, tobacco, rice, wheat, sugarcane, cereal crops, etc. In India, black soil is mainly found in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Andra Pradesh, and Gujarat states.

So, if you want to acquire the knowledge about agriculture field then you must know the various types of farming in India.

 

 

Top 9 Types of Agriculture in India:

To give you a better understanding, we’ve included the benefits and drawbacks of farming in India in the details provide below.

1. Primitive Subsistence farming:

It is an ancient type of farming method, in which farming is performed in a particular or defined space in that farmers grow their crops. farmers can produce food for their own needs and not for sale. In India subsistence farming is practiced in Kerala, the coastal Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

Primitive-Subsistence-farming

Advantages:
  • It is cost-effective. 
  • Organic farming.
Disadvantages:
  • It depends on the monsoon.
  • The Natural fertility of the soil.

2. Commercial agriculture:

The commercial farming method aims to perform the plantation and livestock for selling in the commercial market. For commercial farming large number of the area is required. In India, this type of farming is mostly done in urban areas such as Maharashtra., Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, and Gujarat.

commercial-farming

Advantages:
  • Encouraging Improvement in Local Infrastructure.
  • The production of jobs.
  • Reducing the prices of products and manufacturing prices.
  • Enhanced food security and increased production.
  • Lowering the Cost of Production.
  • Earns foreign currency.
Disadvantages:
  • Land shortages.
  • For newcomers, it is difficult.
  • Crops are biodegradable.
  • Environmentally unsafe.

3. Dry farming:

Dry farming is also known as Dryland Farming. It consumes the maximum amount of water in the soil and without an extra supply of water. The moisture of the soil is low in dryland farming. In India, this type of farming is mostly done in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan.

Dry-farming

Advantages:
  • The increased short-term profits for farmers. 
  • Increase in crop production.
  • Increase in soil organic matter.
  • Decrease soil erosion.
  • Improve dryland agriculture’s long-term viability and productivity.
Disadvantages:
  • The problem is the production of the crop in dry land.
  • Insufficient and unbalanced distribution of rainfall.
  • Late entry and early end of rains. 
  • Extend the duration of Dry spells during the crop period.
  • Cheap moisture control capacity. 
  • Cheap Fertility of Soils. 

 

4. Wet farming:

The word Wet farming is defined its-self as it almost depends on rainfall. Generally, this type of farming is practiced in the Eastern, North-Eastern, North part of India. Crops like Mango, Rose, Chikku, Guava, Custard, Soursop, tamarind, Bur, Pomegranate, Fig, Jack fruit, etc., mostly grows in wet farming.

Wet-farming

Advantages:
  •  The crop yield is high. 
  • It helps the farmer to oversee and observe the land and protect it from dangerous wild animals.
Disadvantages:
  • The tragedy occurs when the floods are so intense that the rice crop is destroyed.
  • The monsoon rains ‘fail,’ killing the rice crop.

5. Shifting agriculture:

Shifting agriculture is also as known as Shifting Cultivation in which farming can be done in a plot of land for a temporary period after that it would be abandoned. This type of farming is mostly practiced in the hilltop region of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Tripura, and Nagaland. In shifting agriculture the crops like maize, millets, cotton, rice, etc., are cultivated.

Shifting-agriculture

Advantages:
  • It is a traditional farming method where a plot of land is clean, burned, and cultured.
  • It is a very easy and fast preparation method for land and agriculture.
Disadvantages:
  • In Shifting Cultivation number of trees are cut in the forest. 
  • Increases soil infertility leads to soil erosion.

6. Plantation agriculture:

Plantation agriculture is a single crop farming that is produced on the land for at least one year. It is also known as commercial farming because the crop is mostly used in factories or small-scale industries. In India, Plantation agriculture is mostly practiced in Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, Bihar.

Plantation-agriculture

Advantages:
  • More job opportunities for the local people.
  •  It origin an income for a country.
  •  Crops are manufacture on large scale.
  •  Large estates are managed logically and economically.
 Disadvantages:
  • Plantation farming is bad for ecology. 
  • over-harvesting and absence of crop-rotation exhaust soil fertility and increases soil erosion.

7. Intensive agriculture:

Intensive farming is also known as Intensive agriculture in this high quantity of fertilizers, labor, pesticides are used on the land for farming. But, intensive farming creates a large number of pollution & it also damages the Environment as compare to organic farming. Intensive farming is practised in West Bengal, Kerala, coastal Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu in India.

 Intensive-farming

Advantages:

  • In Intensive farming, the farm yield is extremely high.
  • Management of the land becomes easier.
  • fruits and vegetables are less expensive in intensive farming techniques.
Disadvantages:
  • It increases the pollution level due to the use of a large number of fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Another downside to industrial farming is the overcrowding of cattle.
  • Intensive farming has a bad effect on the environment.

8. Mixed and Multiple Agriculture:

Mixed cropping is also known as inter-cropping. In this type of farming, the farmers are growing different types of crops but more than once in the same land together. In India, this type of farming is usually practiced in Odisha and Kerala.

Mixed-and-Multiple-Agriculture

Advantages:
  • Farmers can sustain consistent production in their fields.
  • It increases the productivity of the farmland.
  • It increases the per head profitability.
  • It increases the productivity of the farmer.
  • Decreases the dependency on external inputs and costs.

 Disadvantages:

  • Concentrate the fertilizers to single crops is very difficult.
  • Spraying pesticides to single crops is difficult.
  • Gathering and separating crops are not possible.

 

 

 9. Vertical Farming:

In Vertical Farming crops are grown indoors, which requires artificial light and temperature, plants are cultivated in a vertical position in which takes less space and gives more production in the agriculture industry. This type of farming in India is mostly practiced in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai without using soil or pesticides.

Vertical-Farming

  Advantages:
  • Ensures Consistent Crop Production.
  • Uses Space Optimally. 
  • Decreases the Usage of Water. 
  • Pull down on Transport Cost.
  • Labour Costs is Less
  • Energy productivity.

 Disadvantages:

  • High in advance costs.
  • Significance of effective costs.
  • High energy utilization.
  • High-rise in labor costs.
  • Important preservation efforts.

 Every type of Agriculture have their importance, but as per resources, this is the major types of farming in India.

Which crop has the highest production in India?

Ans:-Sugarcane is the highest production in India comes after wheat & rice.

Is the entrance exam is necessary for the Agriculture field?

Ans:-Indian Council of Agriculture Research conducts (ICAR) conducts All India Entrance Examination Undergraduate exam (AIEEA) these exams are conducted every year for those students who are interested or want to take admission in Agriculture or Farming field.

Can I get admission in BSc agriculture without CET?

Ans:-If you only want to do plane Bsc i.e Bachelors of science then you don’t need the CET exam. But, if you want to do a BSc in the agriculture field then it is compulsory to give the entrance exam i.e., the Indian Council of Agriculture Research conducts (ICAR).

 

 

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