Food crops are crops that farmers cultivate for their personal use and to feed their animals, rather than for resale. The major food crops in India are Rice, wheat, millets, maize, and pulses. Sugarcane, oilseeds, and other food crops are also food crops, but they are mostly utilized for commercial purposes, therefore they are known as cash crops. Food crops are a critical resource in today’s world.
No one has yet been able to replace food as a means of existence on the planet, even in these days of technology, when people become more contemporary and their lifestyles change as a result of discoveries made every day. Food is the most important part of existence.
According to their nature, temperature, and environment, different types of food crops are produced in different types of soil in India.
Importance of food crops in India:
Food is the world’s most precious natural resource. Food is essential for humans, animals, and many other living things who rely on it to exist in our world. Despite this, India wastes 68,760,163 tonnes of food each year. According to the Food Index Report, virtually every Indian wastes 50 kg of food each year.
Every single night In India, over 20 crore people are sleeping without food. In which more than a third of children under the age of five exhibit signs of stunting. It accounts for almost 14% of India’s population. They were not provided any food.
There are different types of agriculture in India where farmers practised their craft. In the agricultural business, farmers are the future of future generations.
List of major food crops in India:
There are types of crops in India but this is the list of major food crops in India.
- Rice is a prevalent meal in India, and virtually all Indians eat it in various ways throughout their everyday lives, depending on their culture and needs. Rice is consumed by over half of India’s population.
- After China, India produces the second-largest amount of rice in the world.
- Rice is the most extensively cultivated food crop in India, with approximately 44 million hectares under cultivation.
- Rice is cultivated in different types of soil like medium and shallow black soils, black, mixed red, red sandy, coastal alluvium, laterite, Terai, hill and sub-montane, red loamy, red-yellow, riverine alluvium.
- It requires rainfall of more than 100cm to be cultivated in high temperatures of more than 25 degrees Celsius and high humidity.
- West Bengal is India’s leading rice producer, followed by Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Telangana, Assam, Chattisgarh, and a slew of other states.
- In India, rice output is expected to reach 121.46 million tonnes in 2020-21, a new high compared to the previous five years’ average projections.
- It’s a Kharif harvest.
- Following rice, it is India’s most significant crop. It grows best in a clayey or loamy soil.
- For the cultivation of wheat 29 million hectares of land is used in India.
- It can Flourish in rainfall of less than 100cm but more than 75cm.
- Temperatures are 10-15 degrees Celsius for seeding wheat and 21-26 degrees Celsius for harvesting wheat.
- Uttar Pradesh is India’s largest wheat producer, followed by Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Gujarat, and others.
- In 2020-21, India will produce 108.75 million tonnes of wheat, which is a record and more than the previous year.
- It’s a rabi harvest.
- After wheat and rice, it is India’s third most important crop.
- In India, it is grown on roughly 8.7 million hectares of land.
- It is grown on alluvial soil (old) at temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 degrees Celsius.
- It is ranked 4th in terms of area and 7th in terms of output in the globe.
- Corn is grown in Karnataka, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Himachal Pradesh, although Andhra Pradesh produces the most maize in India.
- India would produce 11578 lakh tonnes of maize in 2020-21.
- This is a Kharif crop, but rabi maize has risen to prominence in recent years because it grows in rabi season in several areas.
- It’s grown in tropical and subtropical climates up to 2,100 meters above sea level. In India, it ranks fourth behind rice, wheat, and maize. For example, finger millet (Ragi), foxtail millet (Kakum/Kangni), sorghum millet (Jowar), pearl millet (Bajra), and amaranth millet (Rajgira/Ramdana/Chola), among others.
- It necessitates the cultivation of 6.93 million hectares of land in India.
- Millet is grown in India on alluvial, loamy, and sandy soil with adequate drainage.
- India is the world’s leading millet producer.
- It is a heat-loving plant that requires temperatures between 26 and 29 degrees Celsius to thrive.
- Rainfall of 50-60cm is required.
- Rajasthan is India’s largest millet producer, followed by Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka.
- Millet output in India is expected to reach 12800 MT in 2021. (metric ton).
- It’s a sort of Kharif crop.
- The majority of pulses are from the leguminous family and are high in protein. Gram,Tur(pigeon pea or red gramme), urad(black gramme), mung(green gram),Masur(lentil),kulti(horse gramme), matar(peas) and many more are Indian pulses, but Tur is the most common. Tur is consumed by many people in India nowadays.
- In India, it has a producing area of 239 lakh hectares.
- At the onset, 600-650mm of rain is required on average under humid conditions for at least eight weeks.
Pulses are cultivated on well-drained soil.
- India is the world’s largest producer of pulses.
- Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Andhra Pradesh are the primary pulse-producing states in India.
- Pulse output in India is expected to reach 25.58 million tonnes in 2020-21, up from 21.93 million tonnes in the previous five years.
- Pulses are rabi and Kharif crops, however, rabi pulses account for about 60% of total production.
Advantages and Disadvantages of food crops:
1.Production of high-quality food crops.
2.The use of fewer insecticides.
3. Plant and animal growth that is healthy.
4.Earth fertility is preserved.
5.In comparison to other crops, food crops are virtually entirely grown naturally.
1.There is a scarcity of suitable land for agriculture.
2.It needs time to mature.
3.Insects may attack food crops as a result of decreased insecticide usage.
Q & A :
What are non-food crops in India?
Ans:- Non-food crops are grown to make a profit by selling them.
Tobacco, opium poppies, coca, jute, coconut, and a variety of other substances are examples.
Which of the following food grain crops occupies the largest part of the cropped area in India?
Ans:- Rice is India’s most widely grown food crop, covering over 44 million hectares of land.
how the green revolution help India to become a leading producer of food crops?
Ans:- Green revolution has boosted the development of food crops in India owing to consistent agricultural practices, high irrigation techniques in the field, and the introduction of a range of new seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and new gadgets that save labor energy.