Introduction of Crops:
Crops help to enhance the body’s immune system; they keep us healthy and protect us from viruses that may damage us. It is a crucial component of our existence. As we know that, Crops are just food that provides energy to our body for daily life survival. There are different types of crops in India which are cultivated in different types of agriculture field. Field crops are the most widely harvested crops in agriculture. For agricultural production, the soil is not the only resource; water and other natural resources are also necessary.
Importance of Crop in India:
Crop output in India is expected to reach 303 million tonnes in 2020-21, up 2% from the previous year. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), India wasted more than 40% of crops every year $14 billion is the price. India has the world’s biggest population of hungry people. Every year, 25 lakh people in India die as a result of a shortage of calories.
Major Types of the crop in India:
Classification of seasonal crops:
Each country has their major crops according to its climate nature and weather conditions. In India there are three major different types of crops are grown i.e, Rabi, Kharif, Zaid. This three-crop Arabic name emerged in India as a result of the Mughal Empire’s growth.
- Rabi crops are implanted in the winter season therefore it is also known as winter or spring crops and it is harvested into the summer season.
- In India, Rabi crops are mostly farmed in states in the north and northwestern sections of the country, including Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal, and Uttar Pradesh.
Rabi crops list:
Bajra, gramme, buckwheat, mustard seeds, rapeseed is a kind of rapeseed, oatmeal (Avena sativa), Wheat is a cereal grain, Linseed.
Banana, know, grape, grapefruit, mangoes, guava, lemon, lime, mulberries, orange, date, mandarin orange,
Lentils / legumes (dal):
Mung bean, chickpea, pigeon pea, toria, Urad bean, kulthi, lobias, masoor
Red gram, sunflower, linseed, isabgol, mustard, Bengal gram, alfalfa, coriander, fenugreek, cumin
Ladyfinger, garlic, fenugreek, chickpea, cauliflowers, capsicum, carrot, broccoli, cabbage, beetroot, brinjal, bean, radish, onion, potato
- Kharif crops are implanted in the monsoon season and harvested at the ending of monsoon season.
- Kharif crops are mostly grown in Assam, West Bengal, and the coastal states of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Maharashtra in India.
- The southwest monsoon winds bring moisture to this crop.
Kharif crops list:
Jowar, Maize (corn), Millet, Rice
Muskmelon, Sugarcane, Orange, Watermelon, Luffa
Groundnut, Urad bean, Guar, Soybean, Green gram, Sesame, Cotton, Arhar(tur), Moth bean, Mung bean
Turmeric, Sponge gourd, Tomato, Tinda, Green bean, Brinjal, Bitter gourd
- Zaid crops are sown for four months throughout the summer season.
- The majority of Zaid crops are grown in the north and west regions of the country.
Zaid crops list:
- Fooder crops
Difference between Rabi, Kharif and Zaid crops:
|1. Crops are planted in the winter and harvested in the summer in this system.||1. Crops are planted at the start of the monsoon and harvested at the end of the monsoon in this process.||1. When rabi crops are harvested and Kharif crops are grown, this crop is planted.|
|2. Since crops are sown in the winter, they are referred to as winter or spring crops.||2. Crops are sown in rainy season, therefore, it is known as monsoon or autumn crop.||2. It is known as a summer crop.|
|3. It necessitates a warm atmosphere for seed germination and a cool environment for plant growth.||3. For development, requires a large amount of water and a hot environment for growing.||3. For the plant to thrive, it needs a dry climate.|
|4. It necessitates the extension of the day.||4. It needs a shorter day.||4. It needs a longer day to complete.|
|5. Wheat, peas, gramme, oilseeds, barley, and other grains are examples.||5. Rice, maize, cotton, groundnut, jowar, bajra, and other grains are examples.||5. Watermelon, Muskmelon, Cucumber, Bittergourd, and Fooder crops are some examples.|
|6. In October and November, it is cultivated.||6.In June and July, it is cultivated.||6. It is planted between March and April.|
|7. In March and April, it is harvested.||7. Between October and September, it is harvested.||7. In June and July, it is harvested.|
Food crops: Food crops are those that are harvested for human consumption rather than for marketing or the personal use of the grower.
Cash Crops: Cash crops are crops that are typically grown for the purpose of marketing rather than personal consumption.
Difference between Food Crops and Cash Crops:
|1. Food crops are gathered for human consumption not for commercial use.||1.The majority of cash crops are grown for commercial purposes.|
|2. It does not need a big amount of land for growing.||2. It needs a vast amount of land for cultivation.|
|3.It is less expensive to cultivate these crops than as compare to cash crops.||3. In comparison to food crops, cash crops are more expensive crops since they require more expensive equipment and fertilisers.|
|4. Food crops have little influence on homes because they are not meant for commercial usage.||4. The advantages of cash crop production in terms of income and employment are not equitably spread across households.|
|5. List of cash crops: Millets, Pulses, Wheat, Maize and Rice are only a few examples.||5. List of cash crops: Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tobacco and Oilseeds are just a few examples.|
Cereal: It is a grain-based dish that is typically consumed first thing in the morning.
Pulses: It is an easy-to-grow seed plant that belongs to the legume family.
Difference between cereals and pulses:
|1. Cereal comes from the Latin word ceres, which means “name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture.”||1. Pulse is a Latin term that means “thick soup.”|
|2. It belongs to the Gramineae family.||2. It belongs to the Legume family.|
|3. Cereals are made up of grass and grain components that are edible.||3. Pulses are edible seeds from several plants.|
|4. Advantages of Cereals: It contains proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, iron, copper, magnesium, phosphorous and zinc.||4. Advantages of Pulses: It contains protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals, iron, zinc, folate and magnesium.|
|5. Disadvantages of Cereals: Some cereals have a higher sugar content than desserts, and excessive consumption can lead to diabetes, hearing loss, and other health issues.||5. Disadvantages of Pulses: It contains lectin, which can harm the human body; thus, boil for at least 10 minutes to decrease lectin. Excessive consumption of pulses on a daily basis might result in gas difficulties.|
|6. List of Cereals: Barley, Oats, Maize, Rice, Wheat and Sorghum are only a few examples.||6. List of Pulses: Chickpeas, Peas, Cowpeas, Beans, Pigeon Peas, Beans, Lentils, Faba Beans are just a few examples.|
Plantation crops in India:
Plantation agriculture very firstly Originated in the American south, but it is introduced in our country by Europeans.
Those crops that a farmer or a community harvests on a large scale on a nearby site. This crop originated on the east coast, but it is now mainly found in the south. We can say that this is a form of commercial crop that aids a country’s economic stability.
List of plantation crops in India:
- Betel Vine
- Oil Palm
Top 10 crops producing states of India:
|1. West Bengal: It is the largest rice-producing state in India which is 146.05 lakh tonnes produced at a yield of 2600 kilogrammes per hector.|
|2. Uttar Pradesh: On 96 lakh hectares of land, it produces 22.5 million tonnes of wheat.|
|3. Punjab: For crop production, it covers 93 per cent of the land.|
|4. Gujarat: It is well-known for its cotton and groundnut output.|
|5. Haryana: It is mainly known for producing rice and wheat.|
|6. Madhya Pradesh: The largest producer of wheat in India (129 lakh tonnes) which is followed by soybean, jowar, and bajra.|
|7. Assam: It is well-known for producing rubber, sugarcane, wheat, potato, cotton, oil, legumes, and other fruits.|
|8. Andhra Pradesh: The most extensively harvested crops are rice, maize, lentils, tobacco, sugarcane, and chillies.|
|9. Karnataka: It is a big producer of coffee, sandalwood, tomato, sunflower, and ragi. The country’s second most significant crops are maize, safflower, grapes, pomegranate, and onions.|
|10. Chhattisgarh: It is mostly known to grow rice crops, although it is also used to grow cereals, pulses, and oilseeds.
Examples of Cereals: Kodo-kutki, Millets and maize.
Examples of Pulses: Kulthi and Tur.
Examples of Oilseeds: Sunflower, Groundnut, Niger, Soyabean.
What are the Seasonal crops in India?
In a seasonal period, each crop needs its own time, place, and environment for growing. Seasonal crops in India has divided into three parts- Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
- Rabi crops are planted in the winter, between October and December, and collected in the summer, between April and June.
- Kharif crops are planted in the early monsoon season, however, they are generally seeded in the months of May and June, and harvested in the months of October and November.
- Zaid crops are grown between the months of March and June when Rabi crops are harvested and Kharif crops are planted.
What are commercial crops in India?
Commercial crops or benefit crops are certain crops that are grown by farmers for the purpose of trade in the agriculture industry.
List of commercial crops:
Which state has the highest tobacco-producing in India?
Andhra Pradesh is India’s biggest tobacco producer, followed by Karnataka, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and others. After China, India is the world’s second-largest producer of tobacco. It produces an average of 761,318 tonnes per year.
Which is Largest coffee-producing state in India?
Karnataka is the state with the biggest coffee production, and Bababudangiris is considered the birthplace of coffee in the state. India is the world’s sixth-largest producer of coffee. In 2020-21, India would produce 342,000 million tonnes of coffee (MT).