Commercial farming: Learn more than 10 different types of commercial agriculture.

One of the most crucial aspects of our lives is agriculture. Commercial farming is one of the most important types of farming or agriculture in the world. Commercial farming is defined as the production of items and animals with the purpose of profiting from them by selling them to parties outside of the farm.

In Hindi, commercial farming is known as ‘vyaavasaayik khetee.’

Commercial farming is an essential component that influences the country’s economic progress in the agriculture industry.

Types of commercial farming:

1.Dairy farming: 

It is a type of commercial farming that produces milk from domestic animals like cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalo, although cow milk is the most popular. It can be done at a dairy facility or on a farm.

People in Italy utilize and consume donkey’s milk.

dairy farming

India produces the most milk, with 194,800 thousand tonnes, accounting for 22 percent of global production. After India, the United States of America, China, the Russian Federation, and Brazil are the world’s top milk producers.


1. In comparison to other industries, the initial investment in dairy farming is minimal.

2. It’s good for the environment.

3. The demand for milk products is steadily growing.

4. Cow dung is excellent organic manure that boosts soil fertility.

5. The manure from cows may be utilized to make biogas.


  1. Many dairy products are high in saturated fats. Saturated fats boost low-density lipoprotein (LDL) – or “bad” – cholesterol levels.
  2. Your risk of coronary heart disease rises as your LDL levels rise.
  3. Lactose intolerance affects certain people.

2.Commercial Grain farming:

It is most commonly performed on temperate grassland with a large quantity of area, and it grows single crops once a year owing to favorable agricultural circumstances.

Grain farming

China is the largest grain producer, followed by India, Russia, and other countries.

Rice, wheat, sorghum, millet, rye, barley, and oats are among the examples.


This can be helpful since, in most cases, farmers can and will earn a greater gross margin per hectare ($/ha) when compared to livestock operations, with the exception of farms with extremely efficient and competent livestock managers.


A few drawbacks, like weather, prices, and infrastructure.

3.Commercial mixed farming: 

Mixed farming is when farmers grow different crops and feed their animals on the same piece of land at the same time. Due to appropriate conditions for mixed farming, it is commonly done in Europe, the eastern United States, Argentina, Southeast Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

mixed farming

Wheat and mustard, for example, or sunflower and groundnut, to name a few.


  1. Due to the unpredictable monsoon, the chance of total crop loss is decreased. Pest infestation risks are significantly minimized.
  2. Growing two crops at the same time improves soil fertility.


  1. Before planting, the seeds of two crops are combined, and there is no specific method for sowing the seeds.
  2. Crop products are harvested, threshed, sold, and consumed in a mixed state.

4.Commercial Plantation farming: 

Plantation farming is when plants are planted in tropical regions and a single crop is grown near facilities where it may be processed and sold directly to the public.

Plantation farming

Rubber in Malasiya, coffee in Brazil, tea in India, and sugarcane in Mauritius are just a few examples.


1. Commercial farming lowers the cost of agricultural products by ensuring that sufficient quantities of crops are accessible on the market. As a result, the forces of supply and demand work to bring down the pricing of such goods.


  1. Retrenchment of labor may have a negative impact on the local economy, and unemployment may rise.
  2. Plantation farming is bad for the environment.
  3. Soil fertility is depleted and soil erosion is increased as a result of over-exploitation and a lack of crop rotation.

5.Livestock ranching: 

It is mostly used for animal breeding on vast plots of land in order to sell meat, cattle, goats, sheep, and animals for profit.

Livestock ranching

Ranching is popular in temperate, arid places like South America’s Pampas, the western United States, Canada’s Prairie Provinces, and Australia’s Outback.

Cattle, goats, pigs, horses, sheep, deer, ostriches, emus, llamas, alpacas, and other animals are also available.


  1. Livestock production offers livelihoods and food security to almost 1.3 billion people, in addition to its economic worth.
  2. Intensification of cattle farming methods, which has resulted in higher yields and efficiency while lowering prices.


  1. Grasses do not grow well in nutrient-deficient soil.
  2. Because of deforestation, native species have less habitat.
  3. Overgrazing has resulted from a variety of ranching techniques.
  4. It’s possible that it’s a major contributor to desertification.
  5. A major contributor to global warming.
  6. More greenhouse gas emissions are caused by agriculture than by transportation.

6.Mediterranean agriculture: 

Mediterranean agriculture has four distinct characteristics orchard farming, viticulture, grain, and vegetable cultivation. In this environment, high-quality vegetables and fruits are available for profit. 

Mediterranean agriculture

In this climate vegetables and fruits of good quality for making money and profit.

Agriculture in Italy, Spain, France, Greece, and Portugal, as well as two new EU members, Malta and Cyprus, has many characteristics with California agriculture.


  1. Many people like citrus fruit, which is derived from crops produced in Mediterranean regions. Citrus fruit also offers certain health advantages.
  2. Environmentally favorable, as they are cultivated in pleasant climates with defined maritime borders.


  1. Issues affecting the Mediterranean agriculture industry’s output diversification.
  2. Issues have an impact on the quality of the Mediterranean agriculture industry’s products.
  3. Water availability in the Mediterranean agriculture business is an issue.

7.Commercial gardening:

It is carried out on a tiny area of land where fruits, vegetables, and decorative crops are grown for profit, and it is also known as truck framing since the distance between the agricultural field and the market is traversed by truck in one night when crops are exported.

Commercial gardening

It is primarily done in the Southwest of the United States.


  1. The enhanced output or yield rate of the crops is a well-known benefit.
  2. It lowers the time it takes to cultivate the ground and adds more area to produce by employing machines to carry out various agricultural practices.


1. One of the drawbacks of commercial gardening is that it contributes to the loss of a country’s natural rain forests.

8.Commercial greenhouse farming: 

It is a form of farming in which crops are grown using high-tech equipment in a dome-shaped structure made of plastics or glass that allows sunlight to flow through to the crops.

greenhouse farming

The Dutch have some of the world’s largest greenhouses. Greenhouses occupied 10,526 hectares, or 0.25 percent of the total land area, in 2000, indicating the country’s size of food production.

Tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, melons, and nursery plant material are the most common crops cultivated in these greenhouses.


  1. crop yields grow.
  2. maximizing of profits.
  3. a consistent yield.
  4. control of pests.
  5. Animals and exotic plant species need to be kept at bay.
  6. storm-proofing.
  7. drought-resistant protection.


  1. An expert was required to put up a greenhouse.
  2. substantial up-front expenses.
  3. operating expenses are quite high.
  4. Concerns about pollination.
  5. Greenhouses may take up a lot of room.
  6. Official approval may be required for greenhouse farming.

9.Commercial indoor farming: 

Because the crops are cultivated in a vertical portion, it is known as vertical farming. Instead of the sun, LED lights are used to stimulate development. Different ways of watering are used. In hydroponic farms, plant roots are placed in nutrient-rich solutions rather than dirt.

indoor farming

It is more expensive to build and requires more power for crop production.

The United States is the most advanced country in terms of vertical farming. China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand are all located in Asia. Vertical farms may be found in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, among other places in Europe.

Vertical gardening is a great way to grow corn, okra, Brussels sprouts, and sunflowers.


  1. Makes the best use of available space. Reduces the amount of water used. Reduces the cost of transport
  2. Labor costs are lower.
  3. Efficient in terms of energy.


  1. Pollination is reduced.
  2. Dependent on technology.
  3. It has an impact on communities.

10.Commercial hydroponics farming: 

It is a contemporary commercial farming technique in which crops are produced without the need for soil, often known as soilless farming. This root is collected and stored in a liquid nutrient solution, which is made up of a combination of vital plant nutrients dissolved in water.

hydroponics farming

Because there is no nutrient storage, you must provide nutrients directly. This is an expensive method for producing crops.

The United States of America, Japan,  India, South Africa is an African nation. Australia. The United Kingdom is a member of the European Union. These are the best nations to cultivate commercial hydroponics.


  1. There is no soil involved.
  2. Getting the Most Out of Your Space.
  3. Climate Control is Complete.
  4. It conserves water.


  1. It takes a lot of time.
  2. Expertise is required.
  3. The Dangers of Water and Electricity.

11.Commercial fish farming:

 It is a type of aquaculture in which fish are kept in a specified area until they reach maturity, at which point they are sold for profit as food.

fish farming

China is the country with the most commercial fish farming, followed by Indonesia, India, Vietnam, and other countries.

Commercial fish farming is simple to accomplish in a tank, and once the fish are mature, they can be sold to generate money.


  1. seafood supply that is consistent.
  2. habitat preservation.
  3. a local source of revenue.
  4. fish prices are cheaper.
  5. Possibilities for employment.
  6. Large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids should be provided.


  1. Antibiotics are a type of antibiotic that is used to treat infections.
  2. hormones for growth.
  3. genetic engineering.
  4. pollution of the water.
  5. detrimental impact on human health.
  6. The commercial fishing sector might be affected.

Characteristics of commercial farming:

1.Large-scale Production:

Large-scale production needs a greater number of laborers for the production of crops and livestock, as well as a greater amount of land.

2.It is Capital-intensive:

The money is used to buy farming supplies such as pesticides, fertilizers, seeds, machinery, and farms in order to make a profit and boost income.

3.High Yielding Varieties (HYV):

The use of high-yielding seed types, pesticides, fertilizers, and other methods that aid in the production of large quantities of high-quality crops.

4.It is Produced for Sale:  

Producing a range of crops such as fruits, vegetables, cereals, and other items for export to generate money, as well as black market crops such as afeem, marijuana, and other items to increase profits.

5.Heavy Machinery and Human Labor:

To produce a large number of commercial crops, more profit and employees are necessary, as well as more land and machinery.

6.In the majority of cases, a single type of agricultural practice is carried out over a large area:

In most commercial farming, just one type of crop is grown for farming to get better results, such as rice farming, sugarcane farming, and tea growing across a vast region. 

7.The Practice is Traditionally Performed Throughout the Year:

Traditional agriculture is a fundamental method of food production and farming that depends heavily on indigenous knowledge, land usage, traditional equipment, natural resources, organic fertilizers, and farmers’ cultural values.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

Advantages of commercial farming:

1.Encouraging Improvement in Local Infrastructure :

It assists individuals in improving their lifestyles by upgrading their neighbhourhood, roads, power, and schools, among other things.

2.Job Creation:

Due to the high demand for commercial farming, more land is required for cultivation, and more machinery and manpower are required for production. As a result, commercial farming helps to generate jobs for those who are unemployed.

3.Lowering the Price of Products:

Because most individuals pursue commercial farming, most commodities are readily available in the market, resulting in increased supply and lower product prices.

4.Increased Production and Enhancing Food Security:

Commercial farming automates processes, reduces disease and insect infestations, and allows farms to produce more. As a result, commercial farmers boost their output, contributing to an increase in the national food supply.

5.Lowering the Cost of Production:

To make their operations more cost-effective in the long run, farmers use more efficient production techniques, such as harvesters, ploughs, harrowers, and planters.

6.Foreign Exchange earner:

It aids the country’s economic stability by exporting crops to other countries, resulting in more earnings and greater economic stability.

7.It is a cost-effective and rapid solution to raise working cash.

8.It allows investors to withdraw their money from the venture.

9.They are less expensive than taking out a bank loan.

10.Because commercial papers must be evaluated, a high grade lowers the company’s cost of capital.


Disadvantages of commercial farming:

  1. Heavy use of pesticides: Because it is impossible to cultivate more natural foods owing to rising population needs, pesticides were employed, lowering the quality of the material but meeting the demand for supply.
  2. Non-availability of land: As a result of a scarcity of land, the demand for food crops has increased.
  3. There is a danger to the ecosystem.
  4. Inadequate government assistance.
  5. Natural rain forests are being destroyed.

Extensive commercial farming in India: 

It is put into practice. Extensive agriculture is a crop production method that employs a little amount of labor and capital in relation to the area of land being farmed in agricultural economics. The soil’s natural fertility, topography, climate, and water availability all have a role in crop yield in vast agriculture. Extensive farming is carried out across vast expanses of land. Although output is high because of the large area, productivity per unit of land is low. Temperate climates, such as the United States and Canada, are the most common locations for this sort of farming. It is almost non-existent in India, with the exception of a few states such as Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana.

Intensive commercial farming in India: 

Intense agriculture, often known as intense farming (as opposed to vast farming) or industrial agriculture, is a type of crop and animal husbandry that produces more input and output per unit of agricultural land area. Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one way or another. Intensive commercial farming is an agricultural practice in which a large amount of capital or labor is focused on a small amount of land. It’s often employed in places where landholdings are shrinking due to population pressure. West Bengal is heavily involved in commercial agriculture.


What are Commercial crops?

Ans:-Commercial crops, often known as cash crops, are those crops that provide money for farmers.








What is commercial grain farming?

Ans:-Due to favorable agricultural conditions, it is most often carried out on temperate grassland with a vast area and grows single crops once a year.

China is the world’s largest grain producer, ahead of India, Russia, and other nations.

Rice, wheat, sorghum, millet, rye, barley, and oats are just a few types of cereal grains.

Major areas of extensive commercial grain farming of the world?

Ans:- In the interiors of semi-arid midlatitudes, commercial grain cultivation is common. Wheat and maize are two of the most common commercial grains. Commercial grain farming is widely practiced in the temperate grasslands of North America, Europe, and Asia. In these sparsely populated areas, large farms span hundreds of hectares.

where is commercial farming practiced?

Ans:-Temperate grasslands in North America, Europe, and Asia are major locations where commercial grain cultivation is practiced.

where is commercial farming practiced in India?

Ans:- In sparsely inhabited areas like Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, and Maharashtra, these systems are widespread. Wheat, cotton, sugarcane, and corn are just a few examples of economically cultivated crops.



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